How much of a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer might be in her control?

There are things women can do to reduce breast cancer risk

Researchers estimate that close to 30% of all breast cancers in the U.S. could be prevented if women maintained a healthy weight, do not use hormone therapy for menopause, and cut back on drinking and smoking. That conclusion held true even for women who were at a high risk for breast cancer due to family history and genetics.


Breast Cancer Risk From Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Risk Factors Among White Women in the United States, JAMA Oncology, May 26, 2016.

An improved model for risk stratification can be useful for guiding public health strategies of breast cancer prevention.

To evaluate combined risk stratification utility of common low penetrant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epidemiologic risk factors.

Design, Setting, and Participants
Using a total of 17 171 cases and 19 862 controls sampled from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) and 5879 women participating in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, a model for predicting absolute risk of breast cancer was developed combining information on individual level data on epidemiologic risk factors and 24 genotyped SNPs from prospective cohort studies, published estimate of odds ratios for 68 additional SNPs, population incidence rate from the National Cancer Institute-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer registry and data on risk factor distribution from nationally representative health survey. The model is used to project the distribution of absolute risk for the population of white women in the United States after adjustment for competing cause of mortality.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms, family history, anthropometric factors, menstrual and/or reproductive factors, and lifestyle factors.

Main Outcomes and Measures
Degree of stratification of absolute risk owing to

  1. nonmodifiable factors:
    • SNPs,
    • family
    • history,
    • height,
    • and some components of menstrual and/or reproductive history
  2. and modifiable factors:
    • body mass index [BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared],
    • menopausal hormone therapy [MHT],
    • alcohol,
    • and smoking.

The average absolute risk for a 30-year-old white woman in the United States developing invasive breast cancer by age 80 years is 11.3%. A model that includes all risk factors provided a range of average absolute risk from 4.4% to 23.5% for women in the bottom and top deciles of the risk distribution, respectively. For women who were at the lowest and highest deciles of nonmodifiable risks, the 5th and 95th percentile range of the risk distribution associated with 4 modifiable factors was 2.9% to 5.0% and 15.5% to 25.0%, respectively. For women in the highest decile of risk owing to nonmodifiable factors, those who had low BMI, did not drink or smoke, and did not use MHT had risks comparable to an average woman in the general population.

Here Are The Things Women Can Do to Avoid Breast Cancer, time, May 26, 2016.

Conclusions and Relevance
This model for absolute risk of breast cancer including SNPs can provide stratification for the population of white women in the United States. The model can also identify subsets of the population at an elevated risk that would benefit most from risk-reduction strategies based on altering modifiable factors. The effectiveness of this model for individual risk communication needs further investigation.

Why is Gender Identity so Important?

Treat everyone with dignity and respect asks Rikki Arundel

This talk, published on 25 Feb 2015, was given at a TEDx event using the TEDx Talks conference format but independently organized by a local community.

  • Why is my Gender Identity so important? Think for a moment about how you might describe someone.
  • Now what if you didn’t know their

    • How would that change your description?
    • How would it change their identity?

Rikki Arundel takes us on a journey into the world between genders to explore how we can break from the prison of gender identity.

More Information

  • In 2002, after a life long struggle with her gender identity, Rikki Arundel decided to change her gender, a decision that brought her successful speaking career in financial services technology to an abrupt halt. Faced with considerable discrimination, she changed her field of expertise, completing a masters degree in Gender Research at Hull University and establishing herself as a diversity expert. She has spent the past decade delivering transgender awareness and other gender related training to mostly public sector organisations, and developing her website: GenderShift.
  • DES studies on gender identity and psychological health.
  • For DES support and community engagement, join the group “DES: Society of Sons and Daughters (So Sad) on Facebook.
  • Watch our interviews and trailers video playlist on YouTube.

Effects of Prenatal Environmental Exposures on the Development of Endometriosis in Female Offspring

Intrauterine diethylstilbestrol exposure and increased risk of endometriosis in descendance


Endometriosis has many hypothesized etiologies. Known risk factors include genetic predisposition, uterine outflow abnormalities, and iatrogenic causes. Of increasing concern is prenatal environmental exposures. However, the findings of studies investigating the relationships between prenatal environmental exposures and the development of endometriosis have not always been conclusive, and therefore, the relationships are debatable.

Effects of Prenatal Environmental Exposures on the Development of Endometriosis in Female Offspring, National Institutes of Health, NCBI PubMed PMID: 26905420, 2016 Feb 22.

This review presents a summary and analysis of the current studies that investigated the effects of prenatal environmental exposures on the development of endometriosis in female offspring.

Prenatal exposure to estrogenic substances (such as ethinyl estradiol and diethylstilbestrol) and environmental toxins (such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls, and bisphenol A) may increase the incidence of endometriosis in female offspring. However, exposure to cigarette smoke may protect against the development of endometriosis in female offspring mainly because of its antiestrogenic effects.

Certain prenatal environmental exposures might result in the development of endometriosis in female offspring. In addition to known environmental exposures that predispose the development of endometriosis in adulthood, such as dioxin and radiation exposure (animal models), prenatal exposures are of increasing concern.

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Old Exposures, Heritable Effects, and Emerging Concepts for Autism Research

Out of the past – heritable effects of endocrine disruptors

Video published on 27 May 2016 by FSUMedMedia channel.

Presentation given by Jill Escher on April 8, 2016 at Florida State University’s Symposium on the Developing Brain.

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Stillbirth: the overall trend masks big variations in rates across the UK

Fifteen babies a day in UK are stillborn or die within month of birth

Fifteen babies are dying every day in the UK from stillbirth, during labour or within four weeks of being born, according to a new report.

Perinatal Mortality Surveillance Reports for UK Births, MBRRACE-UK.

There has been slight fall in the rates of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in the UK compared with rates in 2013 which continues the downward trend in rates from 2003 onwards. However, the overall trend masks big variations in death rates across the UK from 4.1 to 7.1 per 1,000 births. Women from the poorest backgrounds and black and Asian mothers run a higher risk than others that their baby will die in the womb or soon after birth.

Fifteen babies a day in UK are stillborn or die within month of birth, the Guardian, 17 May 2016.

These variations remain despite the fact that a novel method of analysis introduced by MBRRACE-UK has been used to take into account aspects of case-mix to allow ‘fairer’ comparisons of mortality rates between services provided for high risk and low risk pregnancies. The new analytical method which divides the figures for Trusts and Health Boards into five groups based on the services they deliver, also takes into account the random variation in rates which can occur because of the small number of births which occur in some areas.

Neurocounseling: Bridging the Gap between Brain and Behavior

Infographic created by Bradley University’s Online Master of Arts in Counseling program

This infographic by Bradley University’s Online Master of Arts in Counseling program explains how neurocounseling is bridging the gap between brain and behavior and also the incredible impact this type of treatment is having on healthcare.

Endocrine disrupting chemicals and children’s health

Forget about global warming : this is the real threat…

Video published on 23 Feb 2012 by piscesgutt sin kanal channel.

From a Swedish documentary about the chemical cocktail that enters our body from food, drink and pollution.

More information

Does exposure to ambient air pollution increase stillbirth risk?

Air pollution is clearly not good news for anyone’s health, and governments should do all they can to reduce it


Individual studies on the relations between ambient air pollution and the risk of stillbirth have provided contradictory results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the existing evidence.

Prenatal ambient air pollution exposure and the risk of stillbirth: systematic review and meta-analysis of the empirical evidence, Occup Environ Med doi:10.1136/oemed-2015-103086, 24 May 2016.

We conducted a systematic search of three databases: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, from their time of inception to mid-April, 2015. Original studies of any epidemiological design were included. Data from eligible studies were extracted by two investigators. To calculate the summary effect estimates (EE), the random effects model was used with their corresponding 95% CI.

13 studies met the inclusion criteria. Although not reaching statistical significance, all the summary effect estimates for the risk of stillbirth were systematically elevated in relation to mean prenatal exposure to NO2 per 10 ppb (EE=1.066, 95% CI 0.965 to 1.178, n=3), CO per 0.4 ppm (EE=1.025, 95% CI 0.985 to 1.066, n=3), SO2 per 3 ppb (EE=1.022, 95% CI 0.984 to 1.062, n=3,), PM2.5 per 4 μg/m3 (EE=1.021, 95% CI 0.996 to 1.046, n=2) and PM10 per 10 μg/m3 (EE=1.014, 95% CI 0.948 to 1.085, n=2). The effect estimates for SO2, CO, PM10 and O3 were highest for the third trimester exposure. Two time series studies used a lag term of not more than 6 days preceding stillbirth, and both found increased effect estimates for some pollutants.

The body of evidence suggests that exposure to ambient air pollution increases the risk of stillbirth. Further studies are needed to strengthen the evidence.

As a male, I was prenatally exposed to medically prescribed hormones…

Real Talk with The Cummings and Hugh Easton, 2016

Video published on 12 Apr 2016 by REALTALK W/The Cummings channel with DES Son Hugh Easton.

Can a drug manipulate gender identity?

Listen to what Hugh Easton has to say. We know many DES sons who can confirm that yes, it did happen.

” Among my first discoveries were that I have a type of body structure that’s usually associated with intersex conditions, and that I have symptoms of acute hypogonadism. Basically, my body doesn’t make enough testosterone. Then, I came across a passage in the book “Brain Sex”, about a pattern of very shy, socially withdrawn behaviour that was often seen in teenaged boys who’d been prenatally exposed to an artificial estrogen called DES. It was virtually a perfect match for my own teenage years.

Shortly after that, I joined an online group of DES sons. It was like walking into a disaster zone, with everyone in the group appearing to suffer from health problems of various kinds, including hypogonadism, and various intersex-related abnormalities. One of the first things I noticed was that it was supposed to be a group for DES sons, yet most of the people posting stuff were using women’s names! I later discovered that these people had actually been assigned male at birth… “

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Uterus Men

The National Women’s Health Week goal is to empower women to make their health a priority

This 2012 cartoon made me think about DES which was marketed and sold as a wonder drug for women while actually DES led to increased rate of miscarriage and preterm birth and all sorts of terrible and multi-generational side effects

The 17th annual National Women’s Health Week kicks off on May 8, and is celebrated until May 14, 2016.

The National Women’s Health Week is an observance led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on womens’s health. The goal is to empower women to make their health a priority. The week also serves as a time to help women understand what steps they can take to improve their health.

Health cartoons
DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources
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