” In medicine, we need to see all the results, positive and negative, to get a clear understanding of the overall risks and benefits of a treatment. If we only see the positive results, with the less flattering results withheld, then we get an exaggerated picture of the benefits. This can lead to bad treatment decisions. We can be misled into thinking an ineffective treatment is actually effective, meaning a patient is exposed to side effects unnecessarily, or deprived of another effective treatment that they would have had instead. We can be misled into thinking it’s worth enduring side effects for a large benefit, when in reality the benefits are only modest “.
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How Bad Is the Pharma Industry?